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Preface

most likely become partially outdated before publication. Hopefully, it will at least serve as an

amusing historical record of how things were done back in the twentieth century.

The prerequisite for this book is a junior-level course in linear continuous-time and discrete-

time systems, as well as exposure to elementary probability and statistical concepts. Fortunately,

these two courses are usually required at most universities.

The book is divided into 16 chapters. Chapter 1 presents an introduction to the context in

which mixed-signal testing is performed and why it is necessary. Chapter 2 examines the

process by which test programs are generated, from device data sheet to test plan to test code.

Test program structure and functionality are also discussed in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 introduces

basic DC measurement definitions, including continuity, leakage, offset, gain, DC power supply

rejection ratio, and many other types of fundamental DC measurements.

Chapter 4 covers the basics of absolute accuracy, resolution, software calibration, standards

traceability, and measurement repeatability. In addition, basic data analysis is presented in

Chapter 4. A more thorough treatment of data analysis and statistical analysis is delayed until

Chapter 15.

Chapter 5 takes a closer look at the architecture of a generic mixed-signal ATE tester. The

generic tester includes instruments such as DC sources, meters, waveform digitizers, arbitrary

waveform generators, and digital pattern generators with source and capture functionality.

Chapter 6 presents an introduction to both ADC and DAC sampling theory.' DAC sampling

theory is applicable to both DAC circuits in the device under test and to the arbitrary waveform

generators in a mixed-signal tester. ADC sampling theory is applicable to both ADC circuits in

the device under test and to waveform digitizers in a mixed-signal tester. Coherent multi-tone

sample sets are also introduced as an introduction to DSP based testing. Chapter 7 further

develops sampling theory concepts and DSP-based testing methodologies, which are at the core

of many mixed-signal test and measurement techniques. FFT fundamentals, windowing,

frequency domain filtering, and other DSP-based testing fundamentals are covered in Chapters 6

and 7.

Chapter 8 shows how basic AC channel tests can be performed economically using DSP-

based testing. This chapter covers only nonsampled channels, consisting of combinations of op

amps, analog filters, PGAs and other continuous-time circuits. Chapter 9 explores many of these

same tests as they are applied to sampled channels, which include DACs, ADCs, sample and

hold (S/H) amplifiers, etc.

Chapter 10 explains how the basic accuracy of ATE test equipment can be extended using

specialized software routines. This subject is not necessarily taught in formal ATE tester classes,

yet it is critical in the accurate measurement of many DUT performance parameters.

Testing of DACs is covered in Chapter 11. Several kinds of DACs are studied, including

traditional binary-weighted, resistive ladder, pulse-width modulation (PWM), and sigma-delta

architectures. Traditional measurements like INL, DNL, and absolute error are discussed.

Several kinds of DAC architectures are explored, with an emphasis on their respective

weaknesses and common testing methodologies. Chapter 12 builds upon the concepts in

Chapter 11 to show how ADCs are commonly tested. Again, several different kinds of ADCs

are studied, including binary-weighted, dual-slope, flash, semi flash, and sigma-delta