首页A Guide to LaTeX 4th
A Guide to LaTeX 4th
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A new edition to A Guide to LATEX begs the fundamental question: HasLATEX changed so much since the appearance of the third edition in 1999that a new release of this manual is justified?
A Guide to
and Electronic Publishing
Patrick W. Daly
Menlo Park, California
Don Mills, Ontario
© Addison Wesley Longman Limited 2004
Addison Wesley Longman Limited
Essex CM20 2JE
and Associated Companies throughout the World.
The rights of Helmut Kopka and Patrick W. Daly to be identiﬁed as authors of
this Work have been asserted by them in accordance with the Copyright,
Designs and Patents Act 1988.
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a
retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without either the prior
written permission of the publisher or a licence permitting restricted copying in
the United Kingdom issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd,
90 Tottenham Court Road, London W1P 9HE.
The programs in this book have been included for their instructional value.
They have been tested with care but are not guaranteed for any particular
purpose. The publisher does not oﬀer any warranties or representations nor
does it accept any liabilities with respect to the programs.
Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their
products are claimed as trademarks. Addison Wesley Longman Limited has
made every attempt to supply trademark information about manufacturers and
their products mentioned in this book. A list of the trademark designations and
their owners appears on page v.
Cover designed by Designers & Partners, Oxford
Typeset by the authors with the L
X Documentation System
Printed in Great Britain by Henry Ling Ltd, at the Dorset Press, Dorchester,
First published 1993
Second edition 1995
Third edition 1999. Reprinted 1999, 2000
Fourth edition 2004
British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
A guide to L
X : and Electronic Publishing
/ Helmut Kopka, Patrick W. Daly -- 4th ed.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
X (Computer ﬁle) 2. Computerized typesetting. I. Daly,
Patrick W. II. Title.
METAFONT™ is a trademark of Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.
X™, and A
X™ are trademarks of the American
Lucida™ is a trademark of Bigelow & Holmes.
, Internet Explorer
trademarks of Microsoft Corporation.
, Acrobat Reader
, Acrobat logo
are registered trademarks and
PDF™ a trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated.
is a registered trademark in the United States and other countries,
licensed exclusively through X/Open Company, Limited.
VAX™ and VMS™ are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation.
is a registered trademark and techexplorer Hypermedia Browser™ a
trademark of International Business Machines Corporation.
Netscape™ and Netscape Navigator™ are trademarks of Netscape
TrueType™ is a trademark and Apple
trademarks of Apple Computer Inc.
A new edition to A Guide to L
X begs the fundamental question: Has
X changed so much since the appearance of the third edition in 1999
that a new release of this manual is justiﬁed?
The simple answer to that question is ‘Well . . . .’ In 1994, the L
was in upheaval with the issue of the new version L
, and the second
edition of the Guide came out just then to act as the bridge between the
old and new versions. By 1998, the initial teething problems had been
worked out and corrected through semi-annual releases, and the third
edition could describe an established, working system. However, homage
was sti ll paid to the older 2.09 version since many users still employed its
familiar syntax, although they were most likely to be using it in a L
X has now reached a degree of stability that since 2000
the regular updates have been reduced to annual events, which often
appear months after the nominal date, something that does not worry
anyone. The old version 2.09 is obsolete and should no longer play any
role in such a manual. In this fourth edition, it is reduced to an appendix
just to document its syntax and usage.
But if L
X itself has not changed substantially since 1999, many of its
peripherals have. The rise of programs like pdfT
X and dvipdfm for PDF
output adds new possibilities, which are realized, not in L
X directly, but
by means of more modern packages to extend the basic features. The
distribution of T
X installations has changed, such that most users
are given a complete, ready-to-run setup, with all the ‘extras’ that one
used to have to obtain oneself. Those extras include user-contributed
packages, many of which are now considered indispensable. Today ‘the
X system’ includes much more than the basic kernel by Leslie Lamport,
encompassing the contributions of hundreds of other people. This edition
reﬂects this increase in breadth .
The changes to the fourth edition are mainly those of emphasis.
1. The material has been reorganized into ‘Basics’ and ‘Beyond the
Basics’ (‘advanced’ sounds too intimidating) while the appendices
contain topics that really can be skipped by most everyday users.
Exception: Appendix H is an alphabetized command summary that
many people ﬁnd extremely useful (including ourselves).
This reorganizing is meant to stress certain aspects over others. For
example, the section on graphics inclusion and color was originally
treated as an exotic freak, relegated to an appendix on extensions;
in the third edition, it moved up to be included in a front chapter
along with the picture environment and ﬂoats; now it dominates
Chapter 6 all on its own, the ﬂoats come in the following Chapter 7,
and picture is banished to the later Chapter 13. This is not to say
that the picture features are no good, but only that they are very
specialized. We add descriptions of additional drawing possibilities
2. It is stressed as much as possible that L
X is a markup language,
with separation of content and form. Typographical settings should
be placed in the preamble, while the body contains only logical
markup. This is in keeping with the modern ideas of XML, where
form and content are radically segregated.
3. Throughout this edition, contributed packages are explained at that
point in the text where they are most relevant. The fancyhdr
package comes in the section on page styles, natbib where literature
citations are explained. This stresses that these ‘extensions’ are part
of the L
X system as a whole. However, to remind the user that
they must still be explicitly loaded, a marginal note is placed at the
start of their descriptions.
4. PDF output is taken for granted throughout the book, in addition
to the classical DVI format. This means that the added possibilities
X and dvipdfm are explained where they are relevant. A
separate Chapte r 10 on PostScript and PDF is still necessary, and the
best interface to PDF output, the hyperref package by Sebastian
Rahtz, is explained in detail. PDF is also included in Chapter 15 on
On the other hand, the other Web output formats, HTML and XML,
are only dealt with brieﬂy in Appendix E, since these are large topics
treated in other books, most noticeably the L
X Web Companion.
5. This book is being distributed with the T
XLive CD, with the kind
permission of Sebastian Rahtz who maintains it for the T
Group. It contains a full T
X and L
X installation for Windows,
Macintosh, and Linux, plus many of the myriad extensions that
We once again express our hope that this Guide will prove more than
useful to all those who wish to ﬁnd their way through the intricate world
X. And with the addition of the T
XLive CD, that world is brought
even closer to their doorsteps.
Helmut Kopka and Patrick W. Daly
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