"Applied Spatial Data Analysis with R is divided into two basic parts, the first presenting R packages, functions, classes and methods for handling spatial data. This part is of interest to users who need to access and visualise spatial data. Data import and export for many file formats for spatial data are covered in detail, as is the interface between R and the open source GRASS GIS. The second part showcases more specialised kinds of spatial data analysis, including spatial point pattern analysis, interpolation and geostatistics, areal data analysis and disease mapping. The coverage of methods of spatial data analysis ranges from standard techniques to new developments, and the examples used are largely taken from the spatial statistics literature. All the examples can be run using R contributed packages available from the CRAN website, with code and additional data sets from the book's own website. This book will be of interest to researchers who intend to use R to handle, visualise, and analyse spatial data. It will also be of interest to spatial data analysts who do not use R, but who are interested in practical aspects of implementing software for spatial data analysis. It is a suitable companion book for introductory spatial statistics courses and for applied methods courses in a wide range of subjects using spatial data, including human and physical geography, geographical information systems, the environmental sciences, ecology, public health and disease control, economics, public administration and political science. The book has a website where coloured figures, complete code examples, data sets, and other support material may be found: http://www.asdar-book.org. The authors have taken part in writing and maintaining software for spatial data handling and analysis with R in concert since 2003. Roger Bivand is Professor of Geography in the Department of Economics at Norges Handelshøyskole, Bergen, Norway. Edzer Pebesma is Professor of Geoinformatics at Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität, Münster, Germany. Virgilio Gómez-Rubio is Research Associate in the Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom. "
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python中实现以下任务：(a) Load the image 'lena.jpg', convert it to grayscale. (b) Perform sharpening spatial filtering to enhance the image with different parameters (at least 3 kinds). (Tips: skimage.filters.laplace)
The LULC simulation data we utilized to create future EN maps was produced by X. Liu et al. (2017), which was conducted at the national level. The reason we apply national-level simulated data to a local area is as follows. Firstly, China has a top-down land use planning system (also known as spatial planning) with five levels. The quantitative objectives in national plans are handed down to county-level plans through provincial and prefectural level plans (Zhong et al., 2014). That means land use patterns of nine cities in WUA are required to reflect relevant upper-level plans, for example, to satisfy the land use quota made by Hubei provincial plans and the national plans. Secondly, there are interdependencies across places so what happens in one region produces effects not only on this location but on other regions (Overman et al., 2010). And the increase of construction land in one place will shift protection pressure on natural ecosystems elsewhere for a sustainable goal. The land use simulation at the national level allocated land resources from a top-down perspective and links land use changes in a region to events taking place in other locations through global simulation. However, the Kappa coefficient of the simulated data in WUA is 0.55 and the overall accuracy is 0.71, which is lower than the statistic value at the national-level data. Although the Kappa between 0.4~0.6 is moderate and at an acceptable level (Appiah et al., 2015; Ding et al., 2013; Ku, 2016), the simulated accuracy of the land use data needs to be improved. Future work on exploring the impact of LULC dynamics on EN will develop based on the high-accuracy simulated data and updating the initial simulated time to 2020, by integrating the impacts of socioeconomic factors, climate change, regional planning, land use policy, etc.
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